By Paul Dornan, Young Lives Senior Policy Officer
As the year draws to an end, it’s time for
a re-run the next instalment of our ‘who’d miss’ series … 12 things we learned in 2012 and the ‘ever popular and long-awaited’ 13 things we learned in 2013. So here are 14 things from 2014… The need for brevity means I’ve had to simplify loads of information into a few lines – so don’t take my word for it all, click the links to find out more.
#1 Children have high hopes and expectations to study for longer to get a good job and future. At the age of 12 years between three-quarters of children in Ethiopia and nine in ten in Peru wanted to go on to vocational training or university after finishing school. Such high hopes often bump up against sharp realities later on, especially for the most marginalised children. But it makes little sense to interpret the reasons for children leaving school early as a lack of understanding of the importance of a good education. (more…)
By Paul Dornan, Young Lives Senior Policy Officer
The UNFPA State of the World’s Population has just been published, with the title The Power of the 1.8 Billion: Adolescents, Youth and the Transformation of the future. So what does the report show (beyond the importance of summarising the argument in the title!?)…. The 1.8 billion refers to the number of people aged 10 to 24 years (one in four of the world’s population), of whom nine in ten are growing up in poorer countries.
The report’s main thrust is to identify a potential demographic dividend that is a large young workforce, but one which will reduce as countries experience the demographic transition of falling fertility rates. The report draws on the experience of East Asian countries, highlighting the importance of investing in human capital (we can probably call that education …) at the same time as countries experienced declining fertility rates. (more…)
By Alula Pankurst, Ethiopia Country Director, Young Lives
As someone who spends most of my time involved in the nitty-gritty of research, from fieldwork through data analysis to publishing papers and producing policy briefs for consultation with government and other stakeholders, coming to London to attend the Girl Summit was an extraordinary experience. The energy and excitement was palpable and the general enthusiasm especially from vocal young women was infectious. (more…)
Here’s an interesting question: how do children typically use the 24 hours in their day? It’s a rather basic question – with some important implications.
(1) Where children spend their time tell us something about the space for interventions to reach them. There’s not much point in targeting nutrition programmes through schools if the poorest children are all in the fields.
(2) Time-use information might tell us something about what is likely to matter for children’s well-being since where they spend their time will also determine the friends they make, the activities they take part in, and the risks they may be exposed to. (more…)
The World Health Organization has long been interested in the life-course, recognising that much of the burden of non-communicable disease results from the cumulative impact of factors experienced earlier in life. Reducing the burden of ill-health requires engaging with earlier risk factors. In line with more academic ways of looking at life-course studies, the WHO approach has also recognised the wider social context in which people lives their lives, emphasising the social determinants of health.
Policy debates have increasingly engaged with the potential of life-course analysis to improve children’s outcomes, and while most of the attention (although not really spending) focuses on the early years as a key foundational stage, it highlights the importance of those critical moments in children’s lives which must not be missed. Increasingly attention is being drawn to changes and transitions happening during adolescence. What then does a life-course approach offer to concerns about reducing the impact of child poverty? (more…)
In a guest blog for the UNDP Human Development Office, Abby Hardgrove argues that more often than not, youth come to our attention as a result of their association with crisis—be it a crisis of unemployment, of involvement in violence, or susceptibility to early parenthood or sexually transmitted infections and disease.
“I would like to talk about this,” she says. “I do not wish to challenge the idea that young people are vulnerable to risks and even producing risks to themselves and their local contexts. However, I would like to take a second look at the way that youth, risk, and vulnerability are often balled up together in a way that sees young people as the problem (or the solution)—rather than participants in societies and in a global community that are fraught with many problems.” More…
Writing for Ideas for India this week, Young Lives research officer Abhijeet Singh summarises the evidence on the benefits of the Midday Meal Scheme in India. Findings from several studies suggest there may be some hope for correcting early nutritional deprivations which have happened during the critical 1000-day window from conception to a child’s second birthday. Prevention and remediation of malnutrition during the early years is still likely to be the most effective strategy, both in terms of costs and impact, but for children who remain malnourished beyond this critical window, some remediation might still be achievable. (more…)
By Paul Dornan, Senior Policy Officer
The World Bank’s annual World Development Report for 2015 has the working title of ‘mind and culture’ (helpfully, the Bank pre-releases the focal areas of the forthcoming report). A scan of the twitter-sphere suggests that it hasn’t been picked up widely yet, but where it has, the reaction seems positive. Robert Chambers at IDS emphasises the different way of thinking about development; and others welcome this recognition of the importance of context and culture.
Now the Bank is on to something important, but my instinctive reaction is to be cautious. The outline states: “poverty is best understood not only as a state of deprivation but as an environment that affects decision-making”. Remove one or two words and poverty becomes a question of behaviour and bad choices, not constrained decision-making and injustice. So while the topic is an important one, there is a fine line to walk. But there are useful contributions I hope the WDR may be able to make. (more…)
By Uma Vennam
Schooling is playing a pivotal role in challenging traditional expectations of children, notably around the roles of girls and boys as they make the transition through puberty and towards marriage. However, while families aspire to improve their situation by sending their children to school, they face the realistic prospect that their children’s futures may still depend on traditional roles and livelihoods. Our recent interviews with the Young Lives study children in India highlight some of the tensions between the new opportunities and expectations brought by expanded access to school with persisting social norms. (more…)
By Yisak Tafere and Nardos Chuta
Despite the rapid expansion of formal schooling in Ethiopia, attending school does not replace the need for children to contribute to the household or farm, or do paid work, especially in contexts of poverty, weak school systems, and uncertain future opportunities. Economic pressures and social norms continue to draw children into paid and unpaid work, as well as domestic responsibilities, with formal schooling sometimes placing competing demands on children’s time. Multiple, recurrent adverse events and shocks and the persistence of poverty mean that families have to balance the need for survival in the present with the anticipated rewards of keeping children in school. We have been looking at the different factors which contribute to children working and how changing livelihood opportunities are shaping children’s roles and responsibilities in rural Ethiopia. (more…)